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آخرين بروزرساني :۲۲ اسفند ۹۴ ساعت ۰۷:۴۷
۹۴ سه شنبه ۱۸ فروردین

 متون حقوقی(۱)

Part A: Vocabulary

 

  1. The more ………………… your notes, the more useful they will be for revision purpose.
  2. The airline hopes to ………………… deaths in fires by using more fire-resistant materials.
  3. a) survive b) neglect c) eliminate                             d) correspond
  4. ……………… reports said that seven people had died, though this was not confirmed later.
  5. a) Initial b) Excessive             c) Apparent                             d) Sufficient
  6. All the neighbors who had come to ………, stood around the bed where the body was laid.
  7. a) scream b) mourn                     c) suspect                                d) depress
  8. I really enjoy being with my father, he’s got a really good …………….. of humor.
  9. a) feeling b) mood c) method                                d) sense
  10. ………………. determines the color of our eyes.
  11. a) Heridity b) Harmony c) Tribalism                             d) Testimony

 

Part B: Grammer

 

  1. The ancient Olympic Games …………as amateur contests, but in time became professional.
  2. a) begun b) began c) beginning                            d) they began
  3. The higher the content of carbon dioxide in the air, ………………….
  4. a) more heat it retains
  5. b) than it retains more heat
  6. c) it retains more heat
  7. d) the more heat it retains
  8. larger animals ……………. than smaller animals of the same type.
  9. a) longer live generally
  10. b) they generally live long
  11. c) generally live longer
  12. d) live generally long
  13. ……………. in that the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  14. a) It was b) There was
  15. c) There d) It

 

 

 

Part C: Cloze test

My dog was a puppy when we first got him. My brother ___11___ him on a playing field and brought him home. We ___12___ him Rudi. He growled at us and slunk into a corner ___13___ he got to know us. Then he would jump into our laps and snuggle up to us. He is really intelligent. ___14___ morning he will run to the gate to check whether it ___15___. If by some chance it is not, he will push the gate open and run out. He returns in a few minutes but the sense of freedom it gives him appears to be important to him. When it is time for food, he waits ___16___ at the kitchen door. If it is not ready ___17___ time, he barks at my mother. He knows that he is not allowed inside the house. However after his weekly ___18___, he will wait at the door, and if invited, he will come in ___19___ that he will not be chased ___20___ as he is clean.
۱۱٫ (A) find ۱۶٫ (A) expect
(B) finds (B) expecting
(C) found (C) expectant
(D) was found (D) expectantly
۱۲٫ (A) name ۱۷٫ (A) in
(B) named (B) on
(C) was named (C) by
(D) had named (D) at
۱۳٫ (A) as ۱۸٫ (A) bath
(B) when (B) baths
(C) while (C) bathe
(D) until (D) bathing
۱۴٫ (A) Every ۱۹٫ (A) know
(B) One (B) knew
(C) Some (C) known
(D) Another (D) knowing
۱۵٫ (A) bolt ۲۰٫ (A) off
(B) bolts (B) back
(C) bolted (C) out
(D) is bolted (D) away

 

Jerry and John are good friends. ___21___ have a lot of things in common. One of ___22___hobbies is assembling toy airplanes. Whenever Jerry gets a new set, he will try his best to assemble it. Mostly he manages to do it ___23___. If he finds it too difficult, he will call John. Together, they will try and fix the airplane ___24___. If it is still not possible, they will call on Jerry’s father to help. He will gladly help ___25___.

 

 

۲۱٫ (A) They ۲۲٫ (A) their ۲۳٫ (A) themselves
(B) We (B) our (B) yourselves
(C) I (C) my (C) himself
(D) You (D) your (D) herself
۲۴٫ (A) ourselves ۲۵٫ (A) their
(B) themselves (B) theirs
(C) yourselves (C) them
(D) himself (D) they
“Please give me some money,” the boy pleaded with Jackie. “I want to buy some food ___26___,” the boy said sadly. Jackie took pity on the boy and brought him home. He cooked some food for the boy and watched him as he ___27___ up all the food hungrily. Watching the boy ___28___, Jackie wondered what had happened to him. After ___29___ his fill, he told Jackie his story. He was an orphan. He ___30___ scraps from the restaurant nearby when he saw Jackie and decided to ask for help. Jackie decided to bring the boy to the orphanage.

 

۲۶٫ (A) eaten ۲۷٫ (A) eats ۲۸٫ (A) eat
(B) eat (B) was eating (B) eaten
(C) eating (C) Is eating (C) to eat
(D) to eat (D) has eaten (D) eating
۲۹٫ (A) eating ۳۰٫ (A) has been eating
(B) eat (B) was eating
(C) eaten (C) Is eating
(D) to eat (D) ate

 

 

 

متون حقوقی(۲)

Part A: Vocabulary

  1. Pamela ……………… to all of her acquintances as if they were ignorant children.
  2. a) looks over  b) talks down                   c) holds up                   d) tracks down
  3. I was so worried about the examination and it was a great …………. to hear that I had passed.
  4. a) relief b) reward c) escape                   d) sadness
  5. The suspect gave the wrong information to the police in order to …………………. them.
  6. a) disobey b) disapprove                        c) mistreat                  d) mislead
  7. We put down some poisoned ………….. to kill the rats.
  8. a) hoax b) bait c) toll                           d) wager
  9. The country is ………….. all the economic, political, and social pressures of rapid population growth.
  10. a) deriving b) emerging c) undergoing           d) surpassing
  11. As he became more famous, it was more difficult for him to …………. newspaper reporters.
  12. a) avoid b) regret                                 c) realize                    d) settle

Part B: Grammer

  1. When archeologists discovered the ruins of the Olympic Stadium, interest in the Games ….
  2. a) was renewed. b) were renewed c) they were renewed.         d) renewed.
  3. Thirty- five people died as a result ……….. the Mount St.Helens eruption.
  4. a) of b) to c) in                                        d) on
  5. ………….. food we eat lacks minerals, then the body can use the stores from its bones for more urgent needs.
  6. a) As the b) If the c) The                                     d) Since
  7. Did you ask him to get your bike …………….. ?
  8. a) repair b) repairing                c) repaired                             d) to repair
  9. ………….. continental crust older than million years.
  10. a) It is nowhere the b) Nowhere is the    c) Is nowhere the                 d) Is the nowhere
  11. Prices soared when war …………. .
  12. a) went off b) went up c) broke up                            d) broke out

Part C: Cloze test

Dear Janet,

Thank you for the invitation to join your family for a holiday in Pulau Langkawi. I would ___13___ to accept. I am looking forward to ___14___ you and the others. You told me that you would visit your parents in Penang first. Give them my ___15___ when you see them. It’s been many years ___16___ I last saw them. I think it was at your sister’s wedding. By the way, how is your grandmother? She must now be over eighty years of age! My family is doing fine except for my mother who ___17___ from arthritis and frequently ___18___ of pain. I have been really busy and the ___19___ of a holiday by the sea is really attractive. I’ll meet you ___20___ the hotel on the fifteenth. I will be taking the afternoon flight and should be there by dinner time. Goodbye for now.

Love, Lina

                 
۱۳٫   (A) love   ۱۸.   (A) talks
    (B) happy       (B) discusses
    (C) eager       (C) suggests
    (D) delighted       (D) complains
                 
۱۴٫   (A) see   ۱۹٫   (A) dream
    (B) saw       (B) wonder
    (C) seen       (C) idea
    (D) seeing       (D) ambition
                 
۱۵٫   (A) wishes   ۲۰٫   (A) by
    (B) regards       (B) at
    (C) affection       (C) on
    (D) greetings       (D) outside
                 
۱۶٫   (A) before   ۱۷٫   (A) suffer
    (B) after       (B) suffers
    (C) since       (C) suffered
    (D) when       (D) has suffered
 

Raine had an uncle who was getting married in a week’s time. She was very excited to attend ___21___ wedding ceremony.

___۲۲___ preparation for the wedding, Raine’s mother had bought new dresses for her, including her two sisters. She could not wait to wear ___23___. It was a blue, flowery dress that reached to her knees. It was very pretty and ___24___, it was in her favorite color.

The wedding day finally arrived. In the morning, Raine and her family went ___25___ the wedding ceremony at her uncle’s church. The church was gorgeously decorated ___26___ sweet-smelling flowers hanging on the sides of the benches. Her uncle was very handsome in his suit and the bride was beautiful in ___27___ long, trailing white gown.

After the ceremony, there was a buffet reception ___28___ the church. Her uncle and his bride went ___29___ mingling with all the guests, accepting all their congratulatory wishes. The reception took about two hours, after ___30___ everyone dispersed to go home to rest.

۲۱٫ (A) her ۲۲٫ (A) in ۲۳٫ (A) mine
(B) his (B) on (B) yours
(C) herself (C) by (C) hers
(D) himself (D) at (D) his
۲۴٫ (A) however ۲۵٫ (A) out ۲۶٫ (A) with
(B) moreover (B) away (B) on
(C) later (C) by (C) up
(D) therefore (D) for (D) down
۲۷٫ (A) a ۲۸٫ (A) on ۲۹٫ (A) around
(B) an (B) in (B) In front
(C) the (C) at (C) behind
(D) —– (D) across (D) above
۳۰٫ (A) whom
(B) who
(C) which
(D) whose

 

 

متون حقوقی(۳)

 

Part A: Vocabulary

۲۳٫We arrived in the village in the morning and ………………. that night.

a) departed                                                             b) revived

c) converted                                                           d) overcame

۲۴٫Deep freezing is now a common way of ……………… fruit and vegetables.

a) identifying                                                     b) preserving

c) preventing                                                      d) recovering

۲۵٫The hijackers kept the pilot on the board of the plane as a ………………. .

a) damage                                                          b) hostage

c) luggage                                                          d) package

۲۶٫Your organs will only be used after your death if you give your ……………… .

a) conduct                                                                   b) comment

c) credit                                                            d) consent

۲۷٫He was arrested by the police when he tried to ………….. a gun into the airport.

a) smuggle                                                          b) impose

c) emerge                                                           d) obtain

۲۸٫I have taught my daughter to be ……….. about giving people our address when she doesn’t know them quite well.

a) wary                                                              b) mutual

c) vital                                                              d) naive

Part B: Grammer

۲۹٫The two World Wars prevented the Olympics from ………….. place.

a) taking                                                            b) take

c) holding                                                          d) hold

۳۰٫…………… over long distances is a fact.

a) That electricity can be transmitted                              b) That electricity transmiting

c) That electricity                                                        d) That can be transmitted

۳۱٫Nitrogen gas, ………. up about percent of our atmosphere, is constantly being used by plants and animals.

a) which it makes                                                 b) it makes

c) makes                                                             d) which makes

۳۲٫……….. the Supernova was so near, astronomers were able to study it carefully.

a) Although                                                                 b) Since

c) It was                                                            d) As it was

۳۳٫The Soya plant is attacked by both fungus disease …………. virus disease.

     a) and                                                               b) and also

c) but also                                                                   d) or

۳۴٫Contact lenses ………… of acrylic are more transparent and less fragile than lenses made of glass.

a) making                                                           b) made

c) are made                                                                   d) which make

 

Part C: Cloze test

More than a thousand years ago, the Chinese practiced the custom of growing small trees which flowered in time for the Chinese New Year festivities. This custom later spread to Japan where boxes with a small pine, a bamboo clump or a flowering apricot in each ___13___ to decorate the home during the New Year. After two or three centuries, the growing of dwarf trees themselves have become a specialized ___14___ and skilled form of gardening in Japan. This art and the dwarf plants themselves are known as ‘bonsai’.

A tree that is used for bonsai must be of the kind that ___15___ for a few hundred years and that can be made into a miniature. It must also have small leaves and flowers. ___16___ bonsai may be just over a meter tall and may be grown in a small tub; the smallest, a tiny tree of about two centimeters high may be grown in a pot no larger than a thimble.

Professional dwarf-tree collectors usually search ___17___ for those trees growing from cracks and in rocks. Moving the tree is done with special prayers and ceremonies. Sometimes, it takes two to three years to move a dwarf-tree. Its roots are ___18___, a little at a time so that new shallow roots are formed. When the tree is at last dug out of the rocks, it is taken to a ___19___ to recover. After a year, it is then transplanted into a pot.

___۲۰___, each tree was grown alone. Gradually, bonsai planters became creative.Today, a bonsai arrangement may have three or four different types of trees, some stones and even a tiny pond all contained in one pot. The whole arrangement can even be made to look like a miniature landscape with mountains, lakes and very old, gnarled trees.

 

۱۳٫ (A) were used ۱۷٫ (A) seas and oceans
(B) is used (B) cliffs and mountainsides
(C) was used (C) jungles and forests
(D) has been used (D) rivers and swamps
۱۴٫ (A) technique ۱۸٫ (A) cut away
(B) art (B) carved out
(C) trade (C) sliced off
(D) style (D) shaved off
۱۵٫ (A) will live ۱۹٫ (A) nursery
(B) lives (B) garden
(C) lived (C) field
(D) are living (D) farm
۱۶٫ (A) largest ۲۰٫ (A) Presently
(B) larger (B) In the end
(C) large (C) At first
(D) The largest (D) In the past
Sally was thinking about her mother as she walked ___21___ the road. ___22___ her mother had told her that she was fine; Sally knew that her mother was still unwell. A few days ago, Sally called her mother ___23___ recess but there was no answer. When she reached home, she found out that her mother had had an accident. ___24___, she was not badly hurt and was advised to rest at home. But Sally noticed that ___25___ the accident, her mother had been feeling weak. Sally was very worried.

 

 

۲۱٫ (A) in ۲۲٫ (A) Later
(B) along (B) Moreover
(C) above (C) Although
(D) at (D) However
۲۳٫ (A) during ۲۴٫ (A) however
(B) when (B) because
(C) while (C) Since
(D) until (D) So that
۲۵٫ (A) while
(B) as
(C) since
(D) for

 

Mother: ___26___ was that on the phone just now, Anne?

Anne: Oh, it was Uncle Sam.

Mother: What did he say?

Anne: He was just calling to inform us that he would be coming to Singapore.

Mother: ___27___?

Anne: At three o’clock tomorrow. He also told me ___28___ he’ll be staying during the visit. Do you know who is accompanying him here?

Mother: I suppose it’s one of his new friends. ___29___ one is it?

Anne: The one ___30___ you spoke to at the Christmas party last year. His name is Eddie.

 

۲۶٫ (A) What ۲۷٫ (A) when
(B) Where (B) What sort
(C) Who (C) who
(D) Whom (D) which
۲۸٫ (A) Of which ۲۹٫ (A) what
(B) when (B) whom
(C) whose (C) which
(D) where (D) who
۳۰٫ (A) while
(B) who
(C) whom
(D) when

 

 

 

 

متون حقوقی(۴)

Passage

 

         Ownership has been described as ” the entirely of the powers of use and disposal allowed by law” . The owner of a thing has an aggregate of rights, namely (i) the right of enjoyment, (ii) the right of destruction, and (iii) the right of disposition , subject to the right of others. Thus if A owns a hat he or she can wear it, alter it, burn it, or merely throw it away. There are, however, limits to these rights. If A throws the hat at B, this might be an assault on B(or a battery if the hat strikes B) , for under the general law B has a right not to be interfered eith. Similarly in regard to land, A may enjoy and use it , sell it or give it away ; but-use of this land is subject to the rights of others as allowed by law, e.g. in nuisance and tort. Today a landowner’s rights are much circumscribed by legislation aimed at social control, e.g. the Town and Country Planning Act, . Permission for any change in the use of the land owned has to be obtained from the local planning authorities may compulsorily acquire privately owned land and use it for public purposes, e.g. as site for a school or college. A person may own land notwithstanding that another has an easement , such as a right of way , over it. In course of time the idea of ownership grew with an advancing industrial and capitalistic economy. The right of possession changed into the right of ownership which we know we know today.

Ownership may be acquired in the following ways. Ownership may be thus obtained by (i) creating something, e.g. a clay jar or a picture ; (ii) occupation, where a person claims something not owned by anyone, e.g. a wild bird or animal , or by occupation of property abandoned by another ; or (iii) accession e.g. if A owns an animal which begets young, the young animal become the property of A bye accession

  1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

a)The law of use     b)The law of property                 c)The entirety of powers   d)The entirety of disposal

۲٫What does ” aggregate ” in line 2 refer to?

a)An entirety b)An individuality  c)Made up of sevral amounts     d)Addes together as a total amounts

  1. According to the passage, if A …… B, this might be ………

a)Strikes a battery   b)Strikes, an assault          c)Throws the hat at, battery        d)Throws the battery at, an assault

  1. A person may possess land …… another has the right of accommodation in his or her land.

a)But                     b)However             c)So far as              d)In spite of the fact that

  1. Ownership can not be obtained by ………..

a)Yielding                                                                       b)Producing something

c)Talking up something abandoned                                              d)Threatening or violent behavior

 

 

Passage

Contract theory is the body of legal theory that addresses normative and conceptional questions in contract law.

One of the most important quastions asked in contract theory is why contracts are enForced?

One Prominent answer to this question Focuses on the economic benefits of enForcing bargains.

Also contract law concerns enforceable Promises and canbe Summed up in the latin Phrase:” Pacta Sunt Servanda”

The lawof contract is the most important part of commercial law because every commercial transaction starts From agreement between two or more Persons.

  1. According to the above Passage ………
  2. a) Contracts are enForceable because the theory of contract mentioned it.
  3. b) contracts are not enForceable.
  4. c) contracts are enForceable because the economic advantages.
  5. d) all of them
  6. The latin Phrase: ((Pacta Sunt Servanda)) means that:
  7. a) agreements must be kept                                        b) Treaties should be observed.
  8. c) contracts maybe enForceable                                   d) a and b
  9. Which is the best Synonym For ” Commercial law ” ?
  10. a) The law of contract b) business law c) Private law d) none of them
  11. The author Finally says that ………….
  12. a) The law of contract is important in commercial law becaused the base of contract is agreement.
  13. b) The commercial law is important because the agreement is essence of it.
  14. c) agreement has no importance in commercial law.
  15. d) agreement has no importance in contract law.
  16. The best topic For the above passage is …………
  17. a) The quastions in the law of contract    b) The importance of commercial law
  18. c) The importance of the law of contract            d)none of theam

 

Passage

Misre Peresentation is made by one Party to another Party and has the effect of inducing that Party into the contract.

For example under certain circumstance False Statements or Promises made by a seller of good regarding the quality of nature of the Product may constitute misreperesntation.

A finding of misrepresentation allows for remedy of rescission and damages , and in some types the injured party is entiteled to only rescission.

  1. which of Following is the meaning of ” Misrepresentation ” ?
  2. a) rescission                                     b) False statement                     c) Pressure                         d)none of them
  3. which is the best synonym for ” rescission ” ?
  4. a) repudation                                 b) revocation                           c)annulment                   d)rejection
  5. According to the above Passage ……….

a)The remedy For misre Presentation is only damages.                            

b)The remedy For misrepresentation is rescission.

c)The remedy For misrepresentation may be rescission and damages.  

  1. d) all of them
  2. which is the synonym For ” injured Party ” in line (( 4 )) ?
  3. a) The party who made misrePresentation. b)innocent Party
  4. c) The Party to whom misrePresentation is made.                               d) b and c
  5. ” Remedy ” means:
  6. a) redress                           b)compensation                       c)relief                           d)a and c

 

Passage

A sum of money awarded by a court as compensation for a tort or breach of contract. Substantial damages are given when actual damages has been caused but nominal damages may be given for breach of contract in which no damage has been caused.

۱۶٫”A sum of money” in line refers to:

  1. a) consideration b) damage c) damages                       d) restitution

۱۷٫When no actual damage has been caused it is ………. Damages.

  1. a) substantial b) nominal             c) insubstantial                          d) B & C
  2. The title of the above statement is a ………………. For breach of contract.
  3. a) quantum meruit b) consideration c) damages as remedy                           d) None of them

 

Passage

Students of contract learn that in order to form a simple contract, the parties must be in agreement and that agreement constituted by offer and acceptance.

An offer is the offeror’s promise, and acceptance is the assent of offeree to the terms. Therefore, if the offeree rejects the offeror’s term no agreement will arise.

۱۹٫Which is the best synonym for “agreement” ?

  1. a) meeting of minds b) consensus ad idem c) contract              d) A & B
  2. Rejection means:
  3. a) revocation b) refusal c) withdrawal                   d) None of them
  4. Which is not correct ?
  5. a) Offer and acceptance are sufficient to formation a valid contract.
  6. b) Offer and acceptance are the first elements of a valid contract.
  7. c) Offer and acceptance form the agreement.
  8. d) Without acceptance no agreement arises.
  9. Which is the best synonym for “assent” ?
  10. a) accept b) consent c) revoke                d) refuse
  11. Acceptance may be either ……….

a)by word or in writing              

b)by word or inFerred From the offeree’s conduct

c)expressed (by word of mouth or writing) or inFerresd From the offeree’s

d)in writnig or inFerred

  1. The Courts will normally enForce a choice of law clause , Provide that ………

a)the intention expressed is legal                              b)the intention expressed is legal and bona Fide

c)there is no reason For avoiding the choice                         d)none of them

  1. The object of …….. Is to Provide For equality in the distribution of the debtors Property amoung creditors of the same rank.

a)mercantile contracts                 b)Prophecy             c)bank ruptcy                   d)civil law

  1. A writ is ……

a)any written do document b)a covention                   c)any written law     d)an order issued by a court

  1. An evidence of a Fact which the court must take as Proof of such Fact unless disproved bye Further evidence is called ……. Evidence

a)conclusive                 b)direct                  c)hearsay                d)Prima – Facie

 

 

An indication of Willingness to do or refrain From doing some thing that is capable of being coverted acceptance into a legally binding contract.

  1. The above statement is the definition of………
  2. a) Consideration b) Offer c) Consent             d) Legality
  3. According to the above statement:
  4. a) An acceptance is not require for contract b) An offer is not require for contract
  5. c) An acceptance is an essential element of a legally contract d) None of them
  6. Pressure, actual or threatended force put on a person to act in a particular way is……….
  7. a) undue influence b) duress c) mistake               d) vagueness

 

 

 

متون حقوقی(۵)

Passage

The types of conduct which are considered criminal vary From Society to society. It is important there Fore to realize that there is no absolute definition of criminal behaviour.

Ciminal libility is imposed on conduct Felt to be against the general interest of Society.

Obviously if millions of People have to live to gether their lives will be more Pleasant and peaceFul.

If some one measures Prevent them of killing or attacking.

  1. The above Passage is concerned about ….

a)cirmes in society              b)criminal resPonsibility         c)variation of criminal bevaviour         d)none of theme

  1. The word ” absolute ” in First Paragraph means ……

a)clear                        b)un conditional               c)negligent                  d)eFFiciently

  1. According to the First Paragraph ………

a)criminal behaviour is a deFinite behaviour.                   b)criminal behaviour is not deFinite behaviour. c)criminal behaviour is absolute behaviour.               d)All of then.

  1. If People live together their lives will be Pleasant if some measures Prevent them of ……

a)killing – theft           b)murder- robbery            c)killing – battery             d)murder- assault

  1. The word ” obviously ” is synonym For ……

a)clearly                      b)exactly                          c)hardly                        d)eFFiciently

 

Part A: Reading Comprehension

            Read the following passages and choose the best choice.

     Passage

            Almost all common law offences and serious statutory offences require two elements, actus reus and mens rea; in the words of the latin maxim:

” Actus reus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. “

The easiest way to understand these element is to think of actus reus as the physical act, and the mens rea as the intent to do that act. Many minor statutory offences require proof of only actus reus. In addition, a person may sometimes be vicariously liable in criminal law for the act of another person.

۶٫Which is not correct?

  1. a) actus reus and mens rea are two essential elements of crime.
  2. b) In some offences, proof of actus reus is not essential.
  3. c) In some offences, proof of mens rea is not essential.
  4. d) actus reus is the physical act.

۷٫The phrase ” actus reus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea ” means:

  1. a) A person maybe liable for the act of other.
  2. b) actus reus facilitates the commission of a crime.
  3. c) An act does not make a person guilty of his crime unless his mind be also guilty.
  4. d) None of them

۸٫When a corporation held liable for acts of its directors or servants, it is …………. Liable.

  1. a) strictly b) vicariously c) Severally                      d) jointly

۹٫Which is the best title for the above passage?

  1. a) Criminal liabality b) Actus reus c) Strict liability               d) All of them

۱۰٫Which is the synonym of ” mens rea ” ?

  1. a) guilty act b) physical act c) guilty mind                             d) negligence

 

 

Passage

 

    If D commits any crime, other than murder, as a Principal in the first degree and some forms of treason, under the threat of immediate death or serious personal violence, there may be the defence of duress.

The fact the defendant is of low intelligence is not relevant for the jury to take into account as it does not make him or her any less able to withstand threats or pressure. However, the fact that a defendant suffers from mental illness or a recognized Pshchiatric condition may be a relevant characteristic.

  • Which is correct?
  1. a) Duress is a defence in all of the crimes. b) Duress is not a defence in murder as a Principal.
  2. c) Duress is not a defence. d) All of them
  • Which is the best synonym for ” duress ” ?
  1. a) threat b) serious injury               c) pressure                       d) justification
  • According to the above passage:
  1. a) If the defendant is of low intelligence the jury can take account it as a defence.
  2. b) The defendant must withstand threats or pressure as much as possible.
  3. c) If a defendant suffers from mental illness, there is not a defence.
  4. d) None of them

In general, In criminal law when the defendants power to resist is destroyed by a threat of death or serious personal injury or by circumstances, he will have a defence to a criminal charge although he has mens rea for the crime.

  • The above statement is the definition of ……………
  1. a) coercion b) insanity c) threat                          d) duress

 

Passage

          If a shop assistant sells an employers’ goods at less than the correct price, this is an appropriation since the person has exceeded their authority.

To be stolen, property must belong to another, thus abondoned property cannot be stolen, nor can it be if someone believes it to be abondoned. To be theft the appropriation must be made dishonestly and there must be the intention permanently to deprive the other person of the property.

The court of Appeal in held that appropriation is a continuing act and it is for the jury to decide when it is over.

  • The above passage is defining an offence that is in category of ……………
  1. a) offences against persons b) offences against properties
  2. c) offences against public welfare d) indecency act
  • The offence of shop assisstant in the above passage is …………..
  1. a) steal b) burglary                       c) theft                                 d) robbery
  • According to the passage, approving appropriation is a duty of ………..
  1. a) prosecution b) lawyer                c) magistrate court                          d) jury
  • The mens rea of ” theft ” is ……………
  1. a) depriving the other person of it b) appropriation
  2. c) permanently depriving the other of it d) dishonestly
  • Which is the closest in meaning to ” appropriation ” ?
  1. a) abondon b) assumption                            c) exceeding               d) None of them

 

Part B: Tests

 

  1. The mens rea For Murder is ……
  2. a) malic b)malice aForeThought c)negligence            d)intention-recklessness
  3. Every one is Presumed ……..

a)quilty unless he is Proved to be innocent.               b)innocent unless he is Proved to be quilty.

c)quilty unless he is Proved to be sane.                     d)innocent unless he is Proved to be insane.

  1. A Person is guilty of ……… if they make a False instrument in order that it may be used as genuine.

a)Frand                           b)defamation                    c)blackmail                      d)Forgery

  1. These are offences created by statute and may be tried summarily or on indictment.

The offences are called …….

a)indictable offences                   b)summary offences          c)hybrid offences    d)both a and b

  1. ……….. is the offence of intentinally using or threating unlawFul violence.

a)AFFray                         b)Arson                      c)Assault                            d)aggression

 

  1. (Assault) means:
  2. a) Actually applying force to another.
  3. b) An intentional or reckless act causes someone to expect to be subjected to immediate physical harm.
  4. c) Actual physical contact.
  5. d) The intentional or reckless application of physical force To someone without   his consent.

 

The publication of an untrue statement about a   person that tends to lower his reputation in the opinion of right thinking members of the community or to make them avoid him.

۲۶٫The title of the above statement is…………..

  1. a) defence b) defamation c) slander                         d) libel
  2. ………… is stealing and immediately before or at   the time of doing so, and in order to do so, using force on any person.
  3. a) theft b) burglary c) robbery                        d) treason
  4. which is not an offence   against property?
  5. a) false statements by company directors. b) indecent assault
  6. c) handling of stolen goods d) burglary
  7. Destroying any property belonging to another intentionally or recklessly. This is definition of………….
  8. a) Evasion of liability b) handling of stolen goods c) Criminal damage           d) Arson

 

A wrongful act or omission For which damages can be obtained in a civil court by the person wronged other than a wrong that is only a breach. The law of it is mainly concerned with providing compensation for personal injury and Property damage caused by negligence.

  1. The above passage is defining………..
  2. a) Crime b) Mens rea          c) Tort                                d) conspiracy

 

 

 

متون حقوقی(۶)

Part A: Reading Comprehension

            Read the following passages and choose the best choice.

     Passage

            How a state organizes itself for its internal affairs is a matter of little direct concern to international law. The constitution of each state will lay down the division of powers and functions between such of its organs as it may deem useful and necessary. Since the constitutions of states differ, the organs used for the conduct of their internal affairs will also differ from state to state.

However, the public authorities of two different states cannot operate under the law of one of them, so that a necessary corollary of the grant of permission to perform any public function of the sending state in the territory of the receiving state is the allocation to the former of as extensive an immunity from the law of the latter as may be necessary to permit the function to be performed.

  • According to the passage, organizing the internal affairs …………
  1. a) never concern to international law b) only concern to public law
  2. c) little direct relates to international law d) None of them
  • Different states use different organs for the conduct of their internal affairs because …………
  1. a) they have different constitutions b) they have different customs
  2. c) they have different backgrounds d) All of the above
  • Granting of immunity to the agents of other states is ………
  1. a) for the purpose of allowing them to perform their duties.
  2. b) for the sake of mutual respect
  3. c) meant to improve the relations between the two states.
  4. d) determined by both municipal law and international law.

Passage

    Whether an international instrument is a treaty can be discovered only from its contents (and written form) and not from its name.

In negotiating, adopting, authenticating, signing, ratifying or acceding to treaties, states are obliged to act through their representatives.

Distinct from the question of “conclusion” of the treaty is that of the relationship between the treaty and a state. The first stage in such a relationship once the treaty has been concluded is the act by which the state expresses its consent to be bound by the treaty. A state may express such consent either before or after the treaty entered into force. If it does so before, it is called a “contracting state”; if after, a “party” to the treaty. A “third state” means a state not a party to the treaty.

  • According to the first sentence of the passage:
  1. a) A treaty can be distinguished from its name
  2. b) the contents of an international instrument is not important.
  3. c) The name of an international instrument is not important.
  4. d) A treaty may be written or unwritten.
  • The word “accede” in line refers to ……….
  1. a) accelerate b) agree
  2. c) approve d) adapt
  • If a state consents to treaty after it, it is called …………
  1. a) contracting state b) representative
  2. c) party of treaty d) third party

Passage

          State responsibility in international law refers to liability – that of one state to another for the non-observance of the obligations imposed by the international legal systems. A state may incur liability for injury to the defendant state itself. This may be, for example, for breach of a treaty obligation, or for injury to the defendant state’s nationals or their property.

A state cannot relieve itself of responsibility by invoking either provisions or omissions of its domestic legislation. In a federal state, such as Canada or the United States, the federal government is responsible on the international plane and will incur international liability for any actions or omissions of its member states which result in international injury.

Recognized defence pleas which may be utilized by a state to deny responsibility are consent, reprisal, force majeure, distress, necessity and self-defence.

  • In case of federal states ………….
  1. a) The federal government is responsible for the actions of all its member states.
  2. b) every member state is responsible for the actions of the other member states.
  3. c) every member state is responsible for its own actions.
  4. d) member states are responsible for the actions of the central government.
  • Which is not a defence to deny state responsbility?
  1. a) Duress b) Necessity
  2. c) force majeure d) self defence
  • According to the above passage:
  1. a) every state may be liable for injury to the defendant state itself.
  2. b) every state can deny the international liability.
  3. c) A state may be liable for observing a treaty
  4. d) None of them

Passage

In international law it is an essential aspect of sovereignty that all states should have supreme control over their internal affairs, Subject to the recognized limitation imposed by Particular , the international law of Human Rights and rules forbidding the use of force. How ever , no state or international organization may intervene in matters that fall within the domestic jurisdication of another state.

  • According to the passage, Supreme control over internal affairs by state is ………..
  1. a) Jurisdication b) Sovereignty
  2. c) sovereign right d) limitation
  • The limitation to the sovereignty are ………..
  1. a) The rules of Human Rights b) The rules forbidding the use of force
  2. c) The internal affairs d) a and b

Part B: Tests

  • The Coastal state has an exclusive right to fish. And to exploit the resources of the seabed and subsoil of the territorial sea. It means that:
  1. a) all state like the coastal state can fish in territorial sea.
  2. b) no state, except coastal state, is permitted to fish in territorial sea.
  3. c) There is relation between territorial sea and fishing there.
  4. d) All of them
  • The consent of a state to be bound by a treaty may be expressed by signature, exchange of instruments constituting a treaty, ratification, acceptance, Approval accession, or by any other means if so agreed.
  1. a) If a state ratifies a treaty, treaty will be binding on it.
  2. b) If a state ratifies a treaty, treaty will not be binding on it.
  3. c) The treaty will be binding on states whether it is ratified or not
  4. d) The ratification is not enough for making treaty as binding
  • The law setting out the frame work and the principle function of the organs of government within the state, and which declares the principles by which those organs must operate is called:
  1. a) civil law b) constitutional law
  2. c) administrative law d) Private international law
  • Separation of power means that different branches of state are ………
  1. a) interdependent                                      b) independent
  2. c) dependent d) interlocked
  • parliament can remove the government by a vote of …….
  1. a) Confidence b) qualification
  2. c) approval d) censure
  • What does the latin term ((rebus sic stantibus)) refer to in the context of treaties?
  1. a) observance of treaty rules                   b) effects of treaties on third
  2. c) fundamental change of circumstances d) Application of treaties
  • only ….. can appear before the international court of justice in contentions case
  1. a) international organizations b) State and international organization
  2. c) States d) none of them
  • Which branch of law is concerned with the work of official agencies in providing services and in regulating the activities of citizens?
  1. a) civil law
  2. b) constitutional law
  3. c) criminal law
  4. d) administrative law
  • The proper law of an international contract is …………
  1. a) The law of the country in which the contract is negotiated.
  2. b) The system of law applied by the court, to settle the case before it.
  3. c) The system of law chosen by the parties.
  4. d) None of them

۲۱٫According to the vienna convertion a reservation has been deFined as a/an ………….

a)bilateral statement        b)unilateral statement                   c)Multilateral statement    d)bilateral treaty

  1. A state may express its consent to be bound by a treaty ……….

a)bye signature                 b)by signature , by ratification or by accession  c)by ratification      d)non of them

  1. ” modus Vivendi ” means ……

a)agreement            b)temporary conciliation             c)negotiation               d)mediation

  1. The Sources of constiutional law comPrise:

a)The constitution and its amendment                       b)The constitution and acts of Parliament

c)judicial decisious in terPreting the constitution                 d)all of them

  1. The term ” Custom ” in international law means …….

a)usage                                      b)a Practice which by long established usages has come to have Force of law.

c)habit                                      d)none of them

  1. ” Sovereignty ” reFers to ………

a)The President          b)The ministers           c)authority             d)SuPreme authority in a state

  1. Which is a subsidiary source of Inernational law?

a)Custom                          b)Treaty                    c)ex aeque etbono                           d)judicial decision

  1. Which is not a diplomatic Procedure For PeaceFul settlement of International dispute?

a)negotiation                    b)mediation                     c)arbitration                     d)conciliation

  1. ” Prive Internation law ” is a branch of …….

a)cilvil law              b)internal law                            c)international law                      d)all of them

  1. ” Recognition ” is a Political act …..

a)without legal consequence         b)whit Political consequence            c)with legal consequence       d)none of them

 

متون حقوقی(۷)

Part A: Vocabulary           

  1. The emotionally disordered person may perceive ………. events as personal failures.
  2. a) inoffensive b) threatening           c) monotonous                 d) unfavorable
  • Tornadoes pose the greatest threats to the areas, which are especially vulnerable to ………. changes.
  1. a) abrupt b) direct                 c) sharp                           d) vivid
  • The rumor and myth related to the American West had been ………… and new knowledge about Wild West was made known.
  1. a) circulated b) exaggerated c) released                        d) eliminated
  • The Nobel prize is one of the most ……….. awards that a person can win.
  1. a) prestigious b) pessimist c) perfectionist                 d) permanent
  • He damaged his leg so badly in the accident that the bone was ………. .
  1. a) emerged b) exposed      c) excluded                          d) indicated
  • The more ………………… your notes, the more useful they will be for revision purpose.
  1. a) intact b) drastic c) extreme                        d) thorough
  • ……………… reports said that seven people had died, though this was not confirmed later.
  1. a) Initial b) Excessive c) Apparent                      d) Sufficient
  • I really enjoy being with my father, he’s got a really good …………….. of humor.
  1. a) feeling b) mood c) method                        d) sense
  • Pamela ……………… to all of her acquintances as if they were ignorant children.
  1. a) looks over  b) talks down                c) holds up             d) tracks down
  • The suspect gave the wrong information to the police in order to …………………. them.
  1. a) disobey b) disapprove c) mistreat              d) mislead
  • The country is ………….. all the economic, political, and social pressures of rapid population growth.
  1. a) deriving b) emerging c) undergoing                   d) surpassing
  • Deep freezing is now a common way of ……………… fruit and vegetables.
  1. a) identifying b) preserving c) preventing          d) recovering
  • The hijackers kept the pilot on the board of the plane as a ………………. .
  1. a) damage b) hostage c) luggage               d) package
  • Your organs will only be used after your death if you give your ……………… .
  1. a) conduct b) comment c) credit                    d) consent
  • He was arrested by the police when he tried to ………….. a gun into the airport.
  1. a) smuggle b) impose c) emerge                         d) obtain

                

Part B: Grammer

  • Over the past few months, we ……… the police six times.
  1. a) had called b) have been calling c) have called                   d) had been calling
  • The pulse rate of children is faster ………. healthy adult.
  1. a) the average b) that of the average c) than that of the average d) as that of the average
  • Seismographs are used to locate oil, to determine ocean depth, and ……….. earthquakes.
  1. a) detect b) to detect
  2. c) be detecting d) are detecting
  • ………….. mosquito bites a human being or other animal suffering from a certain disease, it carries off the disease germs in its Saliva.
  1. a) A          b) Whenever a                           c) Should a                      d) That a
  • A desert is described as a region ……….. an average of less than ten inches of rain falls in a year.
  1. a) there is b) which has c) in which is                             d) in which

 

Part c: Reading Comprehension

            Read the following passages and choose the best choice.

     Passage

            Assault is an act which causes another person to apprehend immediate and unlawful personal violence. Thus, striking at another with a stick or first (even though the party misses the aim), drawing a sword, and throwing a bottle are common examples. Where A points a firearm at B, which A knows to be unloaded though B does not, and is so near that it might produce injury if it were loaded and went off, this constitutes an assault.

Mere words do not constitute an assault, however. The intent must be shown in acts not just in speech. Words are nevertheless relevant in certain circumstances and may prevent what, in other circumstances, would amount to an assault.

  • In The topic of this passage is an …………
  1. a) fatal offence b) non fatal offence c) offence against persons                   d) B & C
  • The word “apprehend” in means:
  1. a) seizer b) punish                         c) arrest                           d) convict
  • “Assault” means:
  1. a) applying force b) treason c) Trespass to the person            d) Trespass to goods
  • According to the passage:
  1. a) words never constitute an assault. b) in such circumstances words maybe an assault.
  2. c) mere words constitute an assault. d) All of them
  • If what the author said is true:
  1. a) When “A” points a gun or firearm to “B” it is not assault.
  2. b) When “A” points a gun or firearm to “B” it is assault even thought it misses.
  3. c) When “A” points a gun or firearm to “B” it is battery.
  4. d) None of them

 

Passage

    Persons considering themselves to have a civil claim against another will normally consult their solicitor. The first step for the solicitor is to as certain whether a cause of action is disclosed or whether the matter maybe resolved by a straight forward letter to, for example, a debtor asking for payment.

The civil Procedure Act, amends the law as to civil procedure in England and Wales.

  • The above passage is about ………….
  1. a) civil law b) criminal procedure
  2. c) civil procedure d) consultation
  • The person making a claim called ……………
  1. a) plaintiff b) defendant
  2. c) solicitor d) lawyer
  • The best synonym for the answer of question is ………….
  1. a) advocate b) claiment
  2. c) accused d) None of them

 

 

Passage

          In any state sovereignty is vested in the institution, Person, or body having the ultimate authority to impose law on everyone else in the state and the power to alter any pre-existing law. How and by whom the authority is exercised varies according to the political nature of the state. In many countries the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of sovereignty are exercised by different bodies. One of these bodies may in fact retain sovereignty by having ultimate control over the others. But in some countries such as the USA, the powers are carefully balanced by a constitution. In the UK sovereignty is vasted in Parliament.

  • Sovereignty is defined as:
  1. a) authority b) supreme authority in a state
  2. c) internal authority d) the authority to settle international disputes
  • According to the passage:
  1. a) soveregnty is exercised by differend bodies according to the political nature of a state.
  2. b) sovereignty is exercised by the executive power.
  3. c) in the UK sovereignt is exercised by judiciary.
  4. d) All of them

 

 

 

متون حقوقی(۸)

Part A: Vocabulary           

  1. Materials with a high boiling point, rarely, if ever, catch fire. In other words, they are ………….. .
  2. a) inflamably b) inflammation c) inflammable             d) inflammability
  • The court …………. the agreement after months of debate.
  1. a) nullified b) penetrated                            c) vanished                               d) inclined
  • Is the U.S. dollar …………… to the canadian dollar?
  1. a) invariable b) potential c) unanimous                      d) equivalent
  • Nutritional additives are utilized to restore nutrients cost during production to …………… certain foods.
  1. a) alter b) produce c) enrich                                   d) conform
  • ……… investigations track the history of evolution and its changes.
  1. a) temporary b) thorough c) proposed                  d) ongoing

 

Part A: Grammer

  1. He….. have committed   this crime. he wasn’t even in the city that night.
  2. a) might b) shouldn’t                             c) may                          d) can’t
  3. He won’t be able to read unless he …….. his glasses.
  4. a) wears b) wore c) wear                         d) had worn
  5. You had better make reservations …………. we will be sure of getting a good table.
  6. a) In order to b) so that c) so as to                                d) whether
  7. The story………..to everyone here is one that has actually happened.
  8. a) told b) is told                                  c) telling                                   d) it is told
  • I couldn’t concentrate on my homework, because my brother kept………
  1. a) interrupting b) interrupted                           c) to interrupt              d) interruption

 

Part c: Reading Comprehension

            Read the following passages and choose the best choice.

     Passage

 

            Conceptions of what law is are culturally and historically specific. But legal “theories” often claim for themselves a universalism that they do not really have when scholars from Western European legal tradition study the laws and legal institutions of other cultures, what they look for are norms and institutions that are either in form or function analogous to those in their own heritage. The category “law” they proceed from is a western cultural constrauct ( Berman, ).

Many of arguments about what law is or should be are organized around a single dichotomy: whether the basis of law is a moral consensus or a matter of organized domination. Law is sometimes interpreted as an expression of cultural values, sometimes as a rationalized frameworks of power. In ethnographic fact it is usually both. Separating the two absolutely creates a false opposition. Friedman ( ) has argued that “the function of the legal system is to distribute and maintain an allocation of values that society feels to be right … allocation, invested with a sense of rightness, is what is commonly referred to as justice.” Society is thus anthropomorphized as a consensual entity having common values. But Friedman’s more extended discussion indicates a clear awareness of social stratification, and sharp differences of interest and power. His social science approach tries to embrace both consensus and domination in the same analysis.

 

  • The author argues for the idea that ………… .
  1. a) legal theories are definitely universal b) culture affects our interpretation of law
  2. c) law is basically a Western cultural construct d) the Western legal system is universal
  • The word “analogous” ( line ) is closest in meaning to ………… .
  1. a) analytical b) applicable c) logical                                  d) similar
  • According to the author, law should ……… .
  1. a) follow a single dichotomy b) be based only on a moral consensus
  2. c) be totally a matter of organized domination d) reflect both cultural values and power frameworks

 

  • In his initial discussion, Friedman ……… .
  1. a) prefers justice to law
  2. b) ignores consensus as the foundation of law
  3. c) emphasizes the effect of social stratification on law.
  4. d) considers justice as a combination of allocation and rightness.
  • According to the passage, it is true that ……… .
  1. a) Friedman gives priority to domination
  2. b) cultural values reflect law
  3. c) Friedman’s later discussion is against the opposition
  4. d) Western scholars analyze law in terms of a really universal construct

 

Passage

In international law it is an essential aspect of sovereignty that all states should have supreme control over their internal affairs, Subject to the recognized limitation imposed by Particular , the international law of Human Rights and rules forbidding the use of force. How ever , no state or international organization may intervene in matters that fall within the domestic jurisdication of another state.

 

  • According to the passage, Supreme control over internal affairs by state is ………..
  1. a) Jurisdication b) Sovereignty                     c) sovereign right                           d) limitation
  • The limitation to the sovereignty are ………..
  1. a) the rules of Human Rights
  2. b) the rules forbidding the use of force
  3. c) the internal affairs
  4. d) A & B

 

Part D: Tests

  1. The mens rea For Murder is ……
  2. a) malic b)malice aForeThought c)negligence                  d)intention-recklessness
  3. Every one is Presumed ……..

a)quilty unless he is Proved to be innocent.                              b)innocent unless he is Proved to be quilty.

c)quilty unless he is Proved to be sane.                         d)innocent unless he is Proved to be insane.

  1. A Person is guilty of ……… if they make a False instrument in order that it may be used as genuine.

a)Frand                                    b)defamation                            c)blackmail                               d)Forgery

  1. These are offences created by statute and may be tried summarily or on indictment.

The offences are called …….

a)indictable offences                 b)summary offences                 c)hybrid offences          d)both a and b

  1. ……….. is the offence of intentinally using or threating unlawFul violence.

a)AFFray                                 b)Arson                            c)Assault                         d)aggression

  1. (Assault) means:
  2. a) Actually applying force to another.
  3. b) An intentional or reckless act causes someone to expect to be subjected to immediate physical harm.
  4. c) Actual physical contact.
  5. d) The intentional or reckless application of physical force To someone without   his consent
  6. Which is a subsidiary source of Inernational law?

a)Custom                                b)Treaty                             c)ex aeque etbono                         d)judicial decision

  1. Which is not a diplomatic Procedure For PeaceFul settlement of International dispute?

a)negotiation                            b)mediation                             c)arbitration                             d)conciliation

 

  1. ” Prive Internation law ” is a branch of …….

a)cilvil law                    b)internal law                           c)international law                                d)all of them

  1. ” Recognition ” is a Political act …..

a)without legal consequence      b)whit Political consequence         c)with legal consequence       d)none of them

  1. A party who relies on a breach of contract must take such measures as are reasonable in the circumstances to mitigate the loss, including loss of profit resulting from the breach.

According to the text above, the ……… .

  1. a) breach of contract must be reasonable.
  2. b) innocent party must take reasonable measure to reduce the loss.
  3. c) party who breaches the contract must reduce the loss.
  4. d) reliance on breach of a contract must be reasonable.
  5. When a contract is breached by one of the parties to the contract, the main question arising is that of remedy available to the injured party.

The word “remedy” in the text above means:

  1. a) validaty of the contract.
  2. b) existance of a legal agreement between the parties
  3. c) legal relieves given to the other party in order to put him/her where he/she could have been had the contract not been breached.
  4. d) consideration of the contract

International law deals with the external relations of a state and its internal relations with its citizens and other persons on its territory. Both are concerned with the problem of regulating by legal process and values the great power which modern state wield.

۳۰- بر اساس متن فوق کدام گزینه صحیح است؟

الف) حقوق اساسی ناظر به روابط خارجی یک دولت با دیگر دولتهاست.

ب) حقوق اساسی ناظر بر ساختار قانونی دولت و روابط داخلی او با اتباعش و دیگر افراد داخل قلمرو اوست.

ج) حقوق بین الملل ناظر بر روابط دولت با افراد خارجی داخل در قلمرو اوست.

د) حقوق بین الملل ناظر بر ساختار قانونی دولت و روابط خارجی او با دیگر دولتهاست.

 

 



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