تصویر ثابت

نفرات برتر
آخرين بروزرساني :۲۴ اسفند ۹۴ ساعت ۰۹:۲۹
۹۴ شنبه ۰۸ فروردین

Part A: Vocabulary  

  1. Materials with a high boiling point, rarely, if ever, catch fire. In other words, they are ………….. .
  2. a) inflamably b) inflammation c) inflammable             d) inflammability
  3. The court …………. the agreement after months of debate.
  4. a) nullified b) penetrated                            c) vanished                               d) inclined
  5. Is the U.S. dollar …………… to the canadian dollar?
  6. a) invariable b) potential c) unanimous                       d) equivalent
  7. Nutritional additives are utilized to restore nutrients cost during production to …………… certain foods.
  8. a) alter b) produce c) enrich                                   d) conform
  9. ……… investigations track the history of evolution and its changes.
  10. a) temporary b) thorough c) proposed                  d) ongoing

 

Part A: Grammer

  1. He….. have committed   this crime. he wasn’t even in the city that night.
  2. a) might b) shouldn’t                             c) may                          d) can’t
  3. He won’t be able to read unless he …….. his glasses.
  4. a) wears b) wore c) wear                         d) had worn
  5. You had better make reservations …………. we will be sure of getting a good table.
  6. a) In order to b) so that c) so as to                                d) whether
  7. The story………..to everyone here is one that has actually happened.
  8. a) told b) is told                                  c) telling                                   d) it is told
  9. I couldn’t concentrate on my homework, because my brother kept………
  10. a) interrupting b) interrupted c) to interrupt              d) interruption

 

Part c: Reading Comprehension

            Read the following passages and choose the best choice.

      Passage

 

            Conceptions of what law is are culturally and historically specific. But legal “theories” often claim for themselves a universalism that they do not really have when scholars from Western European legal tradition study the laws and legal institutions of other cultures, what they look for are norms and institutions that are either in form or function analogous to those in their own heritage. The category “law” they proceed from is a western cultural constrauct ( Berman, ).

Many of arguments about what law is or should be are organized around a single dichotomy: whether the basis of law is a moral consensus or a matter of organized domination. Law is sometimes interpreted as an expression of cultural values, sometimes as a rationalized frameworks of power. In ethnographic fact it is usually both. Separating the two absolutely creates a false opposition. Friedman ( ) has argued that “the function of the legal system is to distribute and maintain an allocation of values that society feels to be right … allocation, invested with a sense of rightness, is what is commonly referred to as justice.” Society is thus anthropomorphized as a consensual entity having common values. But Friedman’s more extended discussion indicates a clear awareness of social stratification, and sharp differences of interest and power. His social science approach tries to embrace both consensus and domination in the same analysis.

 

  1. The author argues for the idea that ………… .
  2. a) legal theories are definitely universal b) culture affects our interpretation of law
  3. c) law is basically a Western cultural construct d) the Western legal system is universal
  4. The word “analogous” ( line ) is closest in meaning to ………… .
  5. a) analytical b) applicable c) logical                                  d) similar
  6. According to the author, law should ……… .
  7. a) follow a single dichotomy b) be based only on a moral consensus
  8. c) be totally a matter of organized domination d) reflect both cultural values and power frameworks

 

  1. In his initial discussion, Friedman ……… .
  2. a) prefers justice to law
  3. b) ignores consensus as the foundation of law
  4. c) emphasizes the effect of social stratification on law.
  5. d) considers justice as a combination of allocation and rightness.
  6. According to the passage, it is true that ……… .
  7. a) Friedman gives priority to domination
  8. b) cultural values reflect law
  9. c) Friedman’s later discussion is against the opposition
  10. d) Western scholars analyze law in terms of a really universal construct

 

Passage

In international law it is an essential aspect of sovereignty that all states should have supreme control over their internal affairs, Subject to the recognized limitation imposed by Particular , the international law of Human Rights and rules forbidding the use of force. How ever , no state or international organization may intervene in matters that fall within the domestic jurisdication of another state.

 

  1. According to the passage, Supreme control over internal affairs by state is ………..
  2. a) Jurisdication b) Sovereignty                     c) sovereign right                           d) limitation
  3. The limitation to the sovereignty are ………..
  4. a) the rules of Human Rights
  5. b) the rules forbidding the use of force
  6. c) the internal affairs
  7. d) A & B

 

Part D: Tests

  1. The mens rea For Murder is ……
  2. a) malic b)malice aForeThought c)negligence                  d)intention-recklessness
  3. Every one is Presumed ……..

a)quilty unless he is Proved to be innocent.                              b)innocent unless he is Proved to be quilty.

c)quilty unless he is Proved to be sane.                         d)innocent unless he is Proved to be insane.

  1. A Person is guilty of ……… if they make a False instrument in order that it may be used as genuine.

a)Frand                                    b)defamation                            c)blackmail                               d)Forgery

  1. These are offences created by statute and may be tried summarily or on indictment.

 The offences are called …….

a)indictable offences                 b)summary offences                 c)hybrid offences          d)both a and b

  1. ……….. is the offence of intentinally using or threating unlawFul violence.

a)AFFray                                 b)Arson                             c)Assault                          d)aggression

  1. (Assault) means:
  2. a) Actually applying force to another.
  3. b) An intentional or reckless  act  causes  someone  to  expect  to be  subjected  to  immediate  physical
  4. c) Actual physical
  5. d) The intentional or  reckless  application  of  physical  force To someone  without   his  consent
  6. Which is a subsidiary source of Inernational law?

a)Custom                                b)Treaty                             c)ex aeque etbono                         d)judicial decision

  1. Which is not a diplomatic Procedure For PeaceFul settlement of International dispute?

a)negotiation                            b)mediation                             c)arbitration                             d)conciliation

 

  1. ” Prive Internation law ” is a branch of …….

a)cilvil law                    b)internal law                           c)international law                                d)all of them

  1. ” Recognition ” is a Political act …..

a)without legal consequence        b)whit Political consequence         c)with legal consequence        d)none of them

  1. A party who relies on a breach of contract must take such measures as are reasonable in the circumstances to mitigate the loss, including loss of profit resulting from the breach.

According to the text above, the ……… .

  1. a) breach of contract must be reasonable.
  2. b) innocent party must take reasonable measure to reduce the loss.
  3. c) party who breaches the contract must reduce the loss.
  4. d) reliance on breach of a contract must be reasonable.
  5. When a contract is breached by one of the parties to the contract, the main question arising is that of remedy available to the injured party.

The word “remedy” in the text above means:

  1. a) validaty of the contract.
  2. b) existance of a legal agreement between the parties
  3. c) legal relieves given to the other party in order to put him/her where he/she could have been had the contract not been breached.
  4. d) consideration of the contract

International law deals with the external relations of a state and its internal relations with its citizens and other persons on its territory. Both are concerned with the problem of regulating by legal process and values the great power which modern state wield.

۳۰- بر اساس متن فوق کدام گزینه صحیح است؟

الف) حقوق اساسی ناظر به روابط خارجی یک دولت با دیگر دولتهاست.

ب) حقوق اساسی ناظر بر ساختار قانونی دولت و روابط داخلی او با اتباعش و دیگر افراد داخل قلمرو اوست.

ج) حقوق بین الملل ناظر بر روابط دولت با افراد خارجی داخل در قلمرو اوست.

د) حقوق بین الملل ناظر بر ساختار قانونی دولت و روابط خارجی او با دیگر دولتهاست.

 



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